National Park Service Director Jonathan Jarvis takes “full responsibility” for the NPS closing memorials, parks and the sea to enforce the government shutdown. He admits that he presented “his decision” to enforce these closures to the White House. Supposing that what he says is accurate, the Obama White House knew that World War II veterans would be shut out of their memorial, but did nothing to stop it. The Obama White House knew that self-sufficient parks like the Claude Moore Colonial Farm in Virginia would be shut down, and privately managed parks on federal lands would be shut down, but did nothing to intervene. None of these sites were closed during previous shutdowns. The barricades actually cost more more money than simply allowing some sites to remain open.