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What Caused the Universe to Come into Existence?

Big Bang, conceptual computer artwork.

We know, to the best of our senses and instruments, that the universe exists. How did it come into reality 13.8 billion years ago? In other words, what caused the Big Bang?

Roughly speaking, there are two possibilities: “nothing” caused the universe to come into being or “something” triggered it into existence.

Nothing Caused the Universe

People have been attempting to explain the source of reality for over two thousand years. Aristotle himself grappled with it and described an “Unmoved Mover” in trying to codify the source of reality.

The problem with using the nothing-to-something idea is it results in a logical error or in the creation of an infinite number of universes.

  • If the “trigger” of the Big Bang was aseitically static, it would need to be dynamic (have actions/movement) to become dynamic by creating the universe. In other words, a logical fallacy.
  • If the “trigger” of the Big Bang was aseitically dynamic, it would’ve created an infinite number of universes before creating our universe.

Our universe is dynamic — it is expanding. Galaxies, stars, and planets are constantly in motion, and all glowing stars are fusing matter at their cores. Our universe cannot suddenly become dynamic from a static or nonexistent state without outside influence unless the external environment (however it is defined) permits it. And if it is allowed within a "timeless" environment, then that same environment should've permitted an infinite number.

Scientists have used the “quantum fluctuation” idea to avoid the problem posed by the universe’s creation. Somehow, one of the quantum attributes of this universe (the spontaneous appearance and disappearance of particle-antiparticle pairs of virtual particles) is used to claim that is how our universe came into existence.

But quantum fluctuation is part of this universe’s space-time fabric, which only began 13.8 billion years ago with the Big Bang.

It is incoherent to claim any of this universe’s internal attribute is applicable outside the universe.

If this universe’s space and time do not extend outside the universe, then neither will its vacuum fluctuation—an attribute of its space-time.

If these scientists are saying the idea of quantum fluctuation explains the universe, well, how do they know? Also, if it can create one universe, there’s no reason to assume it wouldn’t have already created an infinite number of universes.

Something Caused the Universe

There are five possible sources of the universe, excluding the impossible to confirm like magic and various creation mythologies. This article will provide brief descriptions of each concept and their associated implications.


Figure 1: The Five Possible Causes for the Universe (Image credit: Edward K. Watson, PJ Media)

1. Multiverse Environment

The concept of the beginningless or timeless multiverse—where there is an infinite number of universes coming into and out of existence—can be compared to bubbles that form and disappear in agitated soapy water.