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The PJ Tatler

Bridget Johnson


April 2, 2013 - 12:42 pm

The Associated Press changed its Stylebook today to eliminate the term “illegal immigrant,” updating the online version of the manual immediately and putting the change in the new spring print edition. The new entry:

Illegal immigration: Entering or residing in a country in violation of civil or criminal law. Except in direct quotes essential to the story, use illegal only to refer to an action, not a person: illegal immigration, but not illegal immigrant. Acceptable variations include living in or entering a country illegally or without legal permission.

Except in direct quotations, do not use the terms illegal alien, an illegal, illegals or undocumented.

Do not describe people as violating immigration laws without attribution.

Specify wherever possible how someone entered the country illegally and from where. Crossed the border? Overstayed a visa? What nationality?

People who were brought into the country as children should not be described as having immigrated illegally. For people granted a temporary right to remain in the U.S. under the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program, use temporary resident status, with details on the program lower in the story.

Senior Vice President and Executive Editor Kathleen Carroll explained the decision in a statement:

The Stylebook no longer sanctions the term “illegal immigrant” or the use of “illegal” to describe a person. Instead, it tells users that “illegal” should describe only an action, such as living in or immigrating to a country illegally.

Why did we make the change?

The discussions on this topic have been wide-ranging and include many people from many walks of life. (Earlier, they led us to reject descriptions such as “undocumented,” despite ardent support from some quarters, because it is not precise. A person may have plenty of documents, just not the ones required for legal residence.)

Those discussions continued even after AP affirmed “illegal immigrant” as the best use, for two reasons.

A number of people felt that “illegal immigrant” was the best choice at the time. They also believed the always-evolving English language might soon yield a different choice and we should stay in the conversation.

Also, we had in other areas been ridding the Stylebook of labels. The new section on mental health issues argues for using credibly sourced diagnoses instead of labels. Saying someone was “diagnosed with schizophrenia” instead of schizophrenic, for example.

And that discussion about labeling people, instead of behavior, led us back to “illegal immigrant” again.

We concluded that to be consistent, we needed to change our guidance.

So we have.

Is this the best way to describe someone in a country without permission? We believe that it is for now. We also believe more evolution is likely down the road.

Will the new guidance make it harder for writers? Perhaps just a bit at first. But while labels may be more facile, they are not accurate.

I suspect now we will hear from some language lovers who will find other labels in the AP Stylebook. We welcome that engagement. Get in touch at  or, if you are an AP Stylebook Online subscriber, through the “Ask the Editor” page.

Change is a part of AP Style because the English language is constantly evolving, enriched by new words, phrases and uses. Our goal always is to use the most precise and accurate words so that the meaning is clear to any reader anywhere.

Bridget Johnson is a veteran journalist whose news articles and opinion columns have run in dozens of news outlets across the globe. Bridget first came to Washington to be online editor at The Hill, where she wrote The World from The Hill column on foreign policy. Previously she was an opinion writer and editorial board member at the Rocky Mountain News and nation/world news columnist at the Los Angeles Daily News. She is an NPR contributor and has contributed to USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, National Review Online, Politico and more, and has myriad television and radio credits as a commentator. Bridget is Washington Editor for PJ Media.

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All Comments   (4)
All Comments   (4)
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I can't take credit for the phrase "Illegal immigration is to immigration what shoplifting is to shopping," but AP's line of reasoning could turn shoplifting into "informal inventory adjustment."
1 year ago
1 year ago Link To Comment
I happen to agree with them.

Border crashers are engaged in border crashing. That is not "immigration" by any stretch of the imagination. Nor would throwing the word "illegal" in front of "immigration" make it any more palatable.

Border crashers are people, border crashing is the event. Watering down the event to describe the ...lying.
1 year ago
1 year ago Link To Comment
The AP has a difficult time with English grammar. By all means, feel free to use phrases like:
"person diagnosed with schizophrenia"
"car which is blue"
"building which is tall"
"immigrant who is here illegally"

But unless being paid by the word, I highly recommend:
"schizophrenic man"
"blue car"
"tall building"
"illegal immigrant"

I know, English can be so difficult. Don't give up. You, too, can learn how to use adjectives properly.
1 year ago
1 year ago Link To Comment
What happens to a country that allows an invasion from another country? Does culture change? Is this invasion to help create a CFR North American Union?

How many are rapists, murderers, or drug zombies? I'm just asking.
1 year ago
1 year ago Link To Comment
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