July 25th was the 70th anniversary of the fall of Mussolini, voted out of office by the Grand Fascist Council, arrested by order of the king, and imprisoned. At first, Italy remained in the war under a military government, but the armed forces were in shambles, the Allies had landed in Sicily, and the new government negotiated an armistice with Eisenhower that was agreed on September 8th. Whereupon, in a matter of days, the Germans occupied most of the country, liberated Mussolini from a mountain top and set him up with a little “republic” in the north, and the battle of Italy was on.
Mussolini had led a mass movement to power, had successfully challenged the dominant superpower of the time (Great Britain), had enjoyed enormous popularity for most of two decades, and had entered the war on the side most military experts expected to win (Nazi Germany). He had every reason to expect to rule Italy for years to come, and to be a major actor on the world stage.
It didn’t work out that way. The Americans were unexpectedly bombed into the war at Pearl Harbor, and created an army and a system of production of weaponry that virtually nobody anticipated. The Germans unexpectedly invaded the Soviet Union as winter approached, its troops unprepared for the terrible weather. Hitler was defeated at Stalingrad. The Allies invaded North Africa, defeated Axis forces, and attacked Italy itself. Thus, July 25th.
This surprising history comes to mind when I read the confident predictions and analyses about the various battlefields in our world today. You couldn’t anticipate the fall of Mussolini — at the hands of men he had appointed to high office — until the surprising and dramatic events took place. Without Pearl Harbor, the United States would not have entered the war and it would most likely have taken a very different course. Without the German invasion at the wrong time, Stalingrad would not have occurred, and the Allied North African campaign might have been delayed, or even lost.
These crucial events, and others like them, were the results of human decisions, and many of them were mistakes. At the end of the day, it was all about winning and losing, and the Axis lost even though Germany and Italy had created wildly popular and successful totalitarian mass movements. And the defeat of the Axis was also the defeat of fascism and Nazism, neither of which plays any significant role anywhere in Europe.
So when I hear some smart people say that the Muslim Brotherhood is not going away, or that Assad is doomed, or that Assad is going to win, I want to say to them, “But we don’t know. It all depends…” Popular mass movements like the Brotherhood can indeed go away, especially if they are defeated. Fascism was once a global movement, but it’s gone, even if some of its evil elements survive here and there. It’s gone because it was defeated, and its claims to represent the future were thereby demonstrated false.
The Brotherhood might be decisively defeated in Egypt. The jihadis might be decisively defeated in Syria. So might Assad, along with his Russian and Iranian defenders. You may think any one of these outcomes is impossible, but impossible things happen all the time. My father delighted in quoting to me a slogan from General Electric in the 1930s: “The difficult we do at once; the impossible takes a little longer.”