Did the Cold War's End Transform Star Trek: The Next Generation?
A very thoughtful, enlightening comment from Terrekain on The 10 Most Obnoxious, Overrated Alien Cultures in Star Trek:
None of these series were created in a vacuum.
The writers originally imagined an "introspective" series with episodic "lesson learning" (America-bashing), using alien races as props. Herb Wright, for example, was a socialist, college Vietnam protestor, and apologist for the Soviet Union, who created the Ferengi to represent an evil capitalistic race to be Star Trek's new primary villain.
Needless to say, Wright frequently had confrontations with the lead writer who created the Borg, Maurice Hurley, proving the adage that "A man is defined by the character and nature of his enemies".
This was why so many of the early alien races in TNG were written, as many have complained, like "cartoon caricatures"; transparently insulting to the intelligence of its American audience. The fatal flaw of TNG's early writing (and therefore writers) is why the show was in real trouble in its first two seasons.
Basically, TNG was swimming against the tide back in the late 1980s, although it should be noted that many socialists in the United States and Hollywood still regarded World Socialism as the "winning side" even after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
America's "cultural zeitgeist" wasn't buying TNG's villains, in the same vein that many anti-war movies in the 2001-2008 era were losers, more badly-written propaganda than profit-driven endeavors to sell to an American audience.
Things came to a head, however, with a slate of anti-Left events in 1988-1989: The election of Bush, the withdrawal of the Soviets from Afghanistan, and uprisings against Communist Parties all over the from Asia to Europe. By the time the Berlin Wall was breached in late 1989, TNG's executives realized they didn't just risk being criticized for being naive or incompetent or even apologists;
They were at risk of being branded evil.
While that might seem strange to some Millennials today, for the sake of illustration: imagine branding Christians and Jews as religious terrorist bombers right after 9/11.
In hindsight, things like that are cheesy and laughable.
In the moment of the times and for the people living though them, it's outrageous.
The result was a major shakeup that led to the release/re-assignment/firing of TNG's writers and the hiring of writers who were less susceptible to showing contempt to their audience (especially in their major market, the United States).
One of those writers was the creator of the Borg's understudy and friend, Michael Piller, who became the narrative driving force of the TNG series as well as its spinoffs like Star Trek: Deep Space Nine. Piller used open hiring to circumvent Hollywood's closed-socialist hiring circles, discovering some of TNG's best writers including Ron D. Moore and Rene Echeverria.
The Borg were not originally meant to be the primary villains of Star Trek TNG, but with Piller, they became the most recognizable and menacing villains of the 90s. The Ferengi, by contrast, were fleshed out in Deep Space Nine and received something of a more balanced narrative.
Stories inevitably tell you more about the authors than about the subjects. This was true for the producers and writing staff of TNG just before the Cold War ended, and the new staff inducted into TNG right after the people in Hollywood realized the jig was up.
Star Trek is not to be hailed as some sort of important creation on par with the combustion engine, the transistor, or even the Hoola Hoop.
But TNG does represent a case study, like a capsule in time, reflecting Hollywood's response to prevailing attitudes in America during some interesting times.