Sometime in the 6th century (see "About Dates" below) not far south of the Himalayan mountains on the Indian subcontinent, a man laid out a simple idea: people are unhappy, lack peace of mind, because they cling to their illusions and fantasies about the world instead of seeing things as they are.
Traditional accounts agree his personal name was Siddhartha, "the successful one" or "the one who achieves", which was a popular name then and is popular today. His gotra family name was Gautama, and he was born into a clan called the Shakya, of the Kshatriya or "warrior" class. His father was named Suddhodana, and his mother was named Mayadevi. Suddhodana is usually called a "king" but he was an elected ruler, and the Shakya's government was something more or less like a republic.
The traditions say he was born prematurely, and unexpectedly, under a tree in a place called Lumbini, and recent archeological discoveries show that there was indeed a tree-shrine at the location the tradition identifies. Mayadevi died shortly after Siddhartha's birth.
Siddhartha was raised as a rich princeling, but he left this life of wealth to become a renunciate, and eventually became known as a teacher called "the one who woke up" -- the Buddha.
The first written records we have, however, are from at least a century after his death, and most of the written texts describing his life and teaching were first written down more than 500 years after he died. Many of these stories are fantastic, magical -- and, as they say, they probably grew in the telling.
Can we look into these stories, the sutras, and see more clearly what this man's original teachings were? What he taught before the sutras were written down?
What can we learn from the Undocumented Buddha?