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How Did Halloween Go From Being a Holiday for Kids to a Celebration of Adulthood?

When I was a child, Halloween was the simplest of holidays. Young children dressed up in store-bought costumes (princess for girls, pirate for boys), and went door to door in neighborhoods where almost all adults were happy to give out treats.

Teenage boys would TP trees or smash pumpkins, but outside of the occasional costume party, the participation in Halloween activities of anyone over the age of 12 was rare. Adults were in the background -- oohing and ahhhing over the children's costumes and greeting the trick or treaters at the door with a friendly smile.

So what happened? Why do we now marginalize children on Halloween and push adults front and center for the holiday?

In a word, money. The National Retail Federation gives us Halloween by the numbers:

157 million: people planning to celebrate the holiday this year

$6.9 billion: amount that will be spent on all Halloween purchases

$2.5 billion: amount that will be spent on costumes

Spending breakdown

$1.2 billion on adult costumes

$950 million on children’s costumes

$350 million on pet costumes

$2.1 billion on candy

$1.9 billion on decorations

$74.34 spent per person on Halloween stuff, on average

Halloween spending through the years:

2009: $4.8 billion

2010: $5.8 billion

2011: $6.9 billion

2012: $8 billion

2013: $6.9 billion

2014: $7.4 billion

2015: $6.9 billion

Back in the 1980s, Halloween was dying. Parents became fearful after numerous incidents of kids getting poisoned candy, or treats with razor blades and other objects embedded in them. Schools took up some of the slack by formalizing Halloween activities; local governments also tried to create safe spaces for kids to celebrate the holiday.

But the revival of Halloween had an unexpected source: the gay community.

By the 1980s, gay enclaves like Key West, West Hollywood, and Greenwich Village were holding their annual Halloween street parties. And the parades the night of Halloween did and still do draw straights and gay spectators out to watch.

Gay cultural influence on Halloween has become such an unstoppable phenomenon here and abroad that anthropologist Jerry Kugelmass of University of Florida published a book in 1994 on the new trend, titled Masked Culture, describing Halloween as an emerging gay "high holiday."

"The 'masked culture' first developed by the gays of San Francisco has reached across the lines of orientation -- and now jumped across the boundaries between nations and languages. It's not just a party. It's an ideal of personal emancipation, self-expression and self-fulfillment -- an ideal that loses none of its power when it takes the form of a sexy nurse's outfit," CNN contributor David Frum wrote last year in "Halloween craze started in gay culture."

Nicholas Rogers, author of Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night, points out that while Halloween is enjoyed by everyone, "it has been the Gay community that has most flamboyantly exploited Halloween's potential as a transgressive festival, as one that operates outside or on the margins of orthodox time, space, and hierarchy. Indeed, it is the Gay community that has been arguably most responsible for Halloween's adult rejuvenation."

Author Theodore H. White made much the same observation back in the early 1980s in his book America in Search of Itself.