And in Indonesia in early April, authorities shut down a mosque. As most Indonesian authorities are orthodox Sunni Muslims, they generally take a dim view of Ahmadis and are slow (at best) to act to protect them. AFP reported: “In a notorious 2011 case, a lynch mob clubbed, hacked and stoned three Ahmadiyah to death in western Java. The men convicted over the incident received only light prison sentences, provoking international outrage.”

These are just some of the most recent incidents in a long string of maltreatment, bullying, and violence. Ahmadis face this violence because they’re generally seen as Muslim heretics — and so the converts among jazz musicians to the Ahmadi movement would likely have faced discrimination and persecution had they opted to practice their art in a Muslim country.

Islam may have saved at least some of them from “the deterioration of the mind and body” that drugs and alcohol occasion; however, had they dared to travel to, say, Pakistan or Indonesia, they may have needed to be saved from something else altogether: Islam.