Accordingly, while Abdo did not aid Americans against Muslims, he certainly made use of his tongue: to support his “conscientious objector” status, he pointed to “the peace that Islam preaches”; he claimed that he wanted to fight “Islamophobia” and “put a good positive spin out there that Islam is a good, peaceful religion”;  and though he tried to murder Americans by emulating the Fort Hood massacre, Abdo originally condemned it, calling it “an act of aggression by a man and not by Islam,” insisting that it ran against his beliefs as a Muslim.

Even so, anyone reading between the lines should have noticed his enmity: like Hasan before him, who made no secret of his hatred for infidels in statements in front of classmates, Abdo also made anti-American remarks in class.

Unfortunately, few Americans are aware of doctrines like wala wa bara and taqiyya; worse, they often project their own beliefs and values — from Christianity to secular humanism—onto Islam and Muslims.

For instance, Western people associate piety and religious observance with peace and goodwill: as with Hasan before him — who was described as an “observant Muslim who prayed daily” and “very serious about his religion” — acquaintances shocked at Abdo’s terror plot argue that he was “very devoutly religious.”

Yet, the fact is there is no inconsistency between piety and prayer on the one hand, and jihad and deceit on the other: all are equally codified in Sharia. Moreover, upholding one doctrine often leads to upholding another: thus loyalty to fellow Muslims is a sure sign of disloyalty to non-Muslims.